
Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
!= 
<any> x, <any> y 
Boolean 
Same as <>. Returns true if x is not equal to y, otherwise returns false. x and y must be the same type. As with most other functions, null argument values produce a null result, so it is not possible to test for null with this operator. To test for null, use IsNull() instead. 
(3 / 4 <> 0.75) returns false 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
& 
<any> u, <any> v 
Text 
Returns a text value that is the concatenation of u and v. Use this operator to link strings of characters together in a formula text field.
If u or v is not a text value, QuickBase automatically inserts the function ToText() to convert the value to text before concatenating it.
Does not support User or UserList. 
"abc" & "def" returns "abcdef"
"abc" & 5 returns "abc5"
[First Name] & " " & [Last Name] concatenates the values in the First Name and Last Name field with a space in between them. 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
* 
Number m, Number n 
Number 
Returns the product of m times n. 
[Price] * [Number of Units] multiplies the value in the Price field by the value in the Number of units field.
3 * 4 returns 12
0.5 * 5 returns 2.5 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
* 
Number n, Duration d 
Duration 
Returns a new Duration that is the given Duration d repeated n times. In other words, it's the duration multiplied by the number n. 
3 * Days(2) returns 6 days 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
* 
Duration d, Number n 
Duration 
Returns a new Duration that is the given Duration d repeated n times. In other words, it's the duration multiplied by the number n. 
Weeks(2) * 3 returns 6 weeks 
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Unary Operators (act on single values) 
+ 
Number n 
Number 
Returns n.
A +plus sign in front of a number returns a positive number. 
+5 returns 5
+5 returns 5 
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Unary Operators (act on single values) 
+ 
Duration d 
Duration 
Returns d.
A +plus sign in front of a duration returns a positive duration. 
+ Weeks(3) returns 3 weeks 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
+ 
Number m, Number n 
Number 
Returns the sum of m and n. 
3 + 4 returns 7
[Subtotal] + [Tax] returns the sum achieved by adding the value in the Subtotal field to the value in the Tax field. 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
+ 
Duration x, Duration y 
Duration 
Returns the duration that is the sum of x and y. 
Days(1) + Days(2) returns 3 days 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
+ 
Date d, Duration x 
Date 
Returns the date that is after date d by the duration x. x is truncated to a whole number of days. 
[Start Date] + [Duration] returns the date you get by adding the value in the Duration field to the date in the Start Date field.
ToDate("Jan 1, 2000") + Days(2) returns Jan 3, 2000 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
+ 
Duration x, Date d 
Date 
Returns the date that is after date d by the duration x. x is truncated to a whole number of days. 
Days(2) + ToDate("Jan 1, 2000") returns Jan 3, 2000 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
+ 
Date/Time t, Duration x 
Date/Time 
Returns the Date/Time that is after Date/Time t by the duration x. 
[Call Time] + [Review Period] returns the date and time that follows the date/time in the Call Time field by the duration listed in the Review Period field. 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
+ 
Duration x, Date/Time t 
Date/Time 
Returns the Date/Time that is after Date/Time t by the duration x. 
[Hours Worked] + [Start Time] returns the time of day resulting from adding the value in the Hours Worked field to the time in the Start Time field. 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
+ 
Duration d, TimeOfDay t 
TimeOfDay 
Returns the TimeOfDay that is after TimeOfDay t by the duration x. 
ToTimeOfDay("2 pm") + Hours(22) returns 12 pm 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
+ 
TimeOfDay t, Duration d 
TimeOfDay 
Returns the TimeOfDay that is after TimeOfDay t by the duration x. 
[Start Time] + [Hours Worked] returns the time of day resulting from adding the value in the Hours Worked field to the time in the Start Time field. 
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Unary Operators (act on single values) 
 
Number n 
Number 
Returns the arithmetic negative of n. 
5 returns 5
5 returns 5

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Unary Operators (act on single values) 
 
Duration d 
Duration 
Returns the arithmetic negative of d. 
Weeks(3) returns 3 weeks
Weeks(3) returns 3 weeks 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
 
Number m, Number n 
Number 
Returns the difference of m and n. 
7  3 returns 4
7  2 returns 9 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
 
Duration x, Duration y 
Duration 
Returns the difference of x and y. 
Weeks(1)  Days(2) returns 5 days
Days(1)  Weeks(1) returns 6 days 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
 
Date d, Duration x 
Date 
Returns the date that is before date d by the duration x. x is truncated to a whole number of days. 
[Finish]  [Duration] returns the date you get by subracting the value in the Duration field from the date in the Finish field.
ToDate("Jan 3, 2000")  Days(2) returns Jan 1, 2000 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
 
Date d, Date e 
Duration 
Returns the duration between dates d and e. 
[Actual Date Completed]  [Forecast Date] returns the duration between the date in the Actual Date Completed field and the one in the Forecast Date field.
ToDate("Jan 3, 2000")  ToDate("Jan 1, 2000") returns 2 days 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
 
Date/Time t, Duration x 
Date/Time 
Returns the Date/Time that is before Date/Time t by the duration x. 
[Event Start]  [Days to Prepare] returns the Date and time that precedes the event start by the number of days in the Days to Prepare field. 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
 
Date/Time t, Date/Time u 
Duration 
Returns the duration between Date/Time values t and u. 
[Created]  [Time/Date Resolved] 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
 
TimeOfDay t, Duration d 
TimeOfDay 
Returns the TimeOfDay that is before TimeOfDay t by the duration d. 
[Meeting Start]  [Hours of Prep] returns the time that precedes the Meeting Start time by the number of hours listed in the Hours of Prep field. 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
 
TimeOfDay t, TimeOfDay u 
Duration 
Returns the duration between TimeOfDay t and TimeOfDay u.
The result may be positive or negative depending on whether t is after or before u. 
[End]  [Start] returns the duration you get by subtracting the time value in the Start field from the value in the End field.
ToTimeOfDay("3pm")  ToTimeOfDay("2pm") returns 1 hour
ToTimeOfDay("2pm")  ToTimeOfDay("3pm") returns 1 hour 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
/ 
Number m, Number n 
Number 
Returns m divided by n. 
6 / 4 returns 1.5

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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
/ 
Duration x, Duration y 
Number 
Returns the number of times that Duration y divides into x. 
Weeks(1) / Days(1) returns 7

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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
/ 
Duration x, Number n 
Duration 
Returns a new Duration that is x divided by n. 
Weeks(2) / 2 returns 1 week

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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
< 
<any> x, <any> y 
Boolean 
Returns true if x is less than y, otherwise returns false. x and y must be the same type. For Numbers, the comparison is numerical. For Durations, the comparison is done using length of time represented. For Text, the comparison is done by alphabetical sort order. For Dates, Date/Time, and Time of Day values, the comparison is done by chronological order. For Booleans, false is less than true. 
3 < 4 returns true
4 < 3 returns false
"abcdef" < "gh" returns true

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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
<= 
<any> x, <any> y 
Boolean 
Returns true if x is less than or equal to y, otherwise returns false. x and y must be the same type. For Numbers, the comparison is numerical. For Durations, the comparison is done using length of time represented. For Text, the comparison is done by alphabetical sort order. For Dates, Date/Time, and Time of Day values, the comparison is done by chronological order. For Booleans, false is less than true. 
3 <= 4 returns true
"abcdef" <= "gh" returns true 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
<> 
<any> x, <any> y 
Boolean 
Same as !=. Returns true if x is not equal to y, otherwise returns false. x and y must be the same type. As with most other functions, null argument values produce a null result, so it is not possible to test for null with this operator. To test for null, use IsNull() instead. 
(3 / 4 <> 0.75) returns false 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
= 
<any> x, <any> y 
Boolean 
Returns true if x is equal to y, otherwise returns false.
x and y must be the same type.
As with most other functions, null argument values produce a null result, so it is not possible to test for null with this operator. To test for null, use IsNull() instead. 
(3 / 4 = 0.75) returns true

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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
> 
<any> x, <any> y 
Boolean 
Returns true if x is greater than y, otherwise returns false. x and y must be the same type. For Numbers, the comparison is numerical. For Durations, the comparison is done using length of time represented. For Text, the comparison is done by alphabetical sort order. For Dates, Date/Time, and Time of Day values, the comparison is done by chronological order. For Booleans, false is less than true. 
3 > 4 returns false
[Actual Completion Date] >= [Projected Completion Date] returns true if the value in the the Actual Completion Date field is greater than the date in the Project Completion Date field.
Weeks(1) > Days(6) returns true

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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
>= 
<any> x, <any> y 
Boolean 
Returns true if x is greater than or equal to y, otherwise returns false. x and y must be the same type. For Numbers, the comparison is numerical. For Durations, the comparison is done using length of time represented. For Text, the comparison is done by alphabetical sort order. For Dates, Date/Time, and Time of Day values, the comparison is done by chronological order. For Booleans, false is less than true. 
[Actual Completion Date] >= [Projected Completion Date] returns true if the value in the the Actual Completion Date field is greater than or equal to the date in the Project Completion Date field.
ToDate("Jan 1, 2000") >= ToDate("Feb 1, 1999") returns true 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
^ 
Number m, Number n 
Number 
Returns m raised to the nth power. 
2 ^ 3 returns 8
9 ^ 0.5 returns 3
2 ^ 3 returns 0.125 
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Numbers 
Abs 
(Number n) 
Number 
Returns the absolute value of the Number n. 
Abs(3.5) returns 3.5
Abs(3.5) returns 3.5

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Durations 
Abs 
(Duration d) 
Duration 
Returns the absolute value of d. 
Abs(Weeks(3.5)) returns 3.5 weeks
Abs(Weeks(3.5)) returns 3.5 weeks

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Dates 
AdjustMonth 
(Date d, Number m) 
Date 
Returns the date which is m months after the given date d, with the same day number. If the day doesn't exist in that month, the last day of that month is returned. 
AdjustMonth([Ordered On], 3) returns the date three months after the date in the Ordered On field.
AdjustMonth(ToDate("2/20/99"), 2) returns April 20, 1999
AdjustMonth(ToDate("4/29/99"), 2) returns February 28, 1999 
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Dates 
AdjustYear 
(Date d, Number y) 
Date 
Returns the date which is y years after the given date d, with the same month and day. If the day doesn't exist in that month, the last day of that month is returned. 
AdjustYear([Last Appt], 1) returns the date one year after the date in the Last Appt field.
AdjustYear([Date],1) returns the date one year before the value in the Date field,
AdjustYear(ToDate("2/20/99"), 2) returns February 20, 2001
AdjustYear(ToDate("2/29/00"), 1) returns February 28, 1999 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
and 
Boolean a, Boolean b 
Boolean 
Returns true if a and b are both true, otherwise returns false.
Use this operator to link conditions together. 
(true and false) returns false
[Decision  Technical Lead]="Approved" and
[Decision  Project Manager]="Approved" and
[Decision  Project Sponsor]="Approved"
returns true if all three fields contain the value "approved" 
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Special 
AppID 
() 
Text 
Returns a text value containing the database ID of the app. 
AppID() in this app returns "6ewwzuuj" 
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Aggregation 
Average 
(Number n, ...) 
Number 
Returns the average of all the arguments (except any null values). 
Average(12, 6, null) returns 9

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Aggregation 
Average 
(Duration d, ...) 
Duration 
Returns the average of all the arguments (except any null values). 
Average(Days(1), Days(3)) returns 2 days 
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Aggregation 
Average 
(Date d, ...) 
Date 
Returns the average of all the arguments (except any null values). 
Average(ToDate("1/1/2000"), ToDate("1/3/2000")) returns the date 1/2/2000 
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Aggregation 
Average 
(Date/Time t, ...) 
Date/Time 
Returns the average of all the arguments (except any null values). 
average([Actual Finish], [Planned Finish]) 
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Aggregation 
Average 
(TimeOfDay t, ...) 
TimeOfDay 
Returns the average of all the arguments (except any null values). 
Average([Mon Start Time], [Tues Start Time], [Wed Start Time]) returns the average of all three start times. 
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Encoding Functions 
Base64Decode 
(Text t) 
Text 
Decodes text using base64 encoding. 
Base64Decode("aGVsbG8gd29ybGQ=") returns "hello world" 
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Encoding Functions 
Base64Encode 
(Text t) 
Text 
Encodes text using base64 encoding. 
Base64Encode("hello world") returns "aGVsbG8gd29ybGQ=" 
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Text 
Begins 
(Text u, Text v) 
Boolean 
Returns true if the text u begins with the text v, otherwise returns false. 
Begins("abcdef", "cd") returns false
Begins("abcdef", "abcd") returns true

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Special 
Case 
(<any> x, <any> val1, <any> result1, ..., <any> elseresult) 
<same type as result1> 
Case() is a variation of the If() function. If you want to test many conditions against a single field, use the Case() function instead of the If() function.
QuickBase evaluates the value x and compares it to each of the values that follow (val1 and so on) sequentially. If the value X matches any value, QuickBase returns the corresponding result which lives behind the comma following the matched value. If value x is not equal to any of the values, QuickBase returns the elseresult at the end of the formula.
The elseresult is optional. If omitted, QuickBase assumes it's null (empty).
The value x may be of any data type, but all of the values must be of the same type as x.

Case([Grade], "A", 100, "B", 90, null)
This formula says: If the value in the Grade field is A, then return 100. If the value in the Grade field is B, then return 90. Otherwise, return nothing (null).

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Rounding and Truncating 
Ceil 
(Number x) 
Number 
Returns the smallest integer greater than or equal to the number x. 
Ceil(3) returns 3
Ceil(3.4) returns 4
Ceil(3.4) returns 3

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Rounding and Truncating 
Ceil 
(Number x, Number y) 
Number 
Returns the smallest multiple of y which is greater than or equal to x. 
Ceil(3.5, 2) returns 4
Ceil(3.5, 2) returns 2 
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Rounding and Truncating 
Ceil 
(Duration x, Duration y) 
Duration 
Returns the smallest multiple of the duration y which is greater than or equal to the duration x. 
Ceil(Days(3.5), Days(2)) returns Days(4)

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Text 
Contains 
(Text u, Text v) 
Boolean 
Returns true if v is contained in u, otherwise returns false. 
Contains("abcdef", "cd") returns true
Contains([Status], "open") returns true if the Status field contains the word "open" 
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TextList 
Contains 
(TextList textList, Text textToSearchFor) 
Boolean 
Returns true if textToSearchFor is contained in textList, otherwise returns false. Comparison is not case sensitive. 
Contains([Skills Required], "Kung fu") returns true if the "Skills required" field has as one of its selected options "Kung fu" 
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UserList 
Contains 
Contains (UserList userList, User userToSearchFor) 
Boolean 
Returns true if userToSearchFor is contained in userList, otherwise returns false. 
Contains([Team members], [Assigned To]) returns true if the value of the "Assigned To" field appears in the "Team members" list 
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Aggregation 
Count 
(<any> x, ...) 
Number 
Counts the number of nonnull arguments. For Text arguments, nonblanks are counted. For Boolean arguments, trues are counted.
This function can also be used in the context of a Summary report where it will count the # of Nonnull records for each grouping, if used to specify the field to check in a Calculated Column. 
Count ("", "abc", true, false, 53) returns 3
For the Summary Report example, a formula might look something like this:
Count([Field])
This might be used if the customer were trying to determine  within the Summary Report groups  how many of these records had a value in [Field] 
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Dates 
Date 
(Number year, Number month, Number day) 
Date 
Creates a date from a year, month and day. 
Date(2000, 1, 10) returns the date January 10, 2000 
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Dates 
Day 
(Date d) 
Number 
Returns the day of the month of the given Date d. 
Day([Start Date]) returns the day of the month for the date that appears in the Start Date field.
Day(ToDate("Jan 10, 2000")) returns 10 
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Dates 
DayOfWeek 
(Date d) 
Number 
Returns the number of days by which the given date d follows the first day of the week (Sunday returns 0). 
DayOfWeek([Start Date]) returns the number of the day of the week for the date that appears in the Start Date field.
DayOfWeek(ToDate("Aug 23, 2000")) returns 3
DayOfWeek(ToDate("Aug 20, 2000")) returns 0 
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Dates 
DayOfYear 
(Date d) 
Number 
Returns the number of days by which the given date d follows the first day of the year (January 1 returns 0). 
DayOfYear(ToDate("Jan 1, 2000")) returns 0
DayOfYear(ToDate("Jan 10, 2000")) returns 9 
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Durations 
Days 
(Number n) 
Duration 
Returns a Duration representing n days. This function takes a number and converts it into a Duration type value, expressed in days. 
Days(1.5) returns a 1.5 day duration
Days([Estimated # of days]) converts the numeric value in the Estimated # of days field into a duration expressed in days. The number doesn't change, just the data type. 
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Special 
Dbid 
() 
Text 
Returns a Text value containing the database ID of a table. 
Dbid() in this database returns "6ewwzuuj" 
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Text 
Ends 
(Text u, Text v) 
Boolean 
Returns true if the text u ends with the text v, otherwise returns false. 
Ends("abcdef", "cd") returns false
Ends("abcdef", "cdef") returns true

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Numbers 
Exp 
(Number n) 
Number 
Returns e raised to the nth power, where e is approximately 2.71828182845905
This exponential function is for use in logarithmic calculations that track growth. For example, you can use it to figure compounding interest. 
Exp(2) returns 7.389056 (which is e, or 2.71828182845905, to the 2nd power)
Exp(5) returns 148.413159 (e to the 5th power) 
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Dates 
FirstDayOfMonth 
(Date d) 
Date 
Returns the first day of the month in which the date falls. 
FirstDayOfMonth([Order Date]) returns the first day of the month in which the Order Date occurs.
FirstDayOfMonth(Today()) returns the first day of the current month. 
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Dates 
FirstDayOfPeriod 
(Date d, Duration p, Date r) 
Date 
Returns the first day of the period in which the date d falls.
The cycle of periods is defined by the given Duration p, repeated in sequence starting at the given reference date r. If the period p is not a whole number of days, the fractional part is ignored. 
Useful for handling biweekly pay periods.
FirstDayOfPeriod([date field], Weeks(2), Date(2000,5,1)) returns the date that is the start of the two week period in which the date in the date field falls. The initial two week period that starts the cycle begins on May 1, 2000.
FirstDayOfPeriod(Today(), Days(365), Date(2005,7,1)) returns the date July 1st of the current yearlong period. Between 7/1/06 and 7/1/07 this would be July 1, 2006. (As the years go on, this method won't account for leap years.) 
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Dates 
FirstDayOfWeek 
(Date d) 
Date 
Returns the first day (Sunday) of the week in which the date falls. 
FirstDayOfWeek([Start Date]) returns the date of the Sunday (first day of the week) in which the Start Date occurs.
FirstDayOfWeek(ToDate("7/30/2007")) returns the date 72907 
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Dates 
FirstDayOfYear 
(Date d) 
Date 
Returns the first day of the year in which the date falls. 
FirstDayOfYear([Termination Date]) returns the first day of the year in which the Termination date occurs.
FirstDayOfYear(Today()) returns the first day of the current year. 
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Rounding and Truncating 
Floor 
(Number x) 
Number 
Returns the largest integer less than or equal to the number x.
Note that if x is a negative fraction, the result is closer to negative infinity than x is (compare to function Int). 
Floor(3) returns 3
Floor(3.4) returns 3
Floor (3.8) returns 3
Floor(3.4) returns 4

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Rounding and Truncating 
Floor 
(Number x, Number y) 
Number 
Returns the largest multiple of y which is less than or equal to x. 
Floor(3.5, 2) returns 2
Floor(3.5, 2) returns 4 
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Rounding and Truncating 
Floor 
(Duration x, Duration y) 
Duration 
Returns the largest multiple of the duration y which is less than or equal to the duration x. 
Floor(Days(3.5), Days(2)) returns Days(2)

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Numbers 
Frac 
(Number n) 
Number 
Returns the fractional part of the Number n. The result is the same sign as n. For any Number n, Int(n) + Frac(n) is the same as n. 
Frac(3.4) returns 0.4
Frac(2.3) returns 0.3 
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TimeOfDay 
Hour 
(TimeOfDay t) 
Number 
Returns the hour part of the argument t. The hour is in the range 0 to 23. 
Hour(ToTimeOfDay("3:04pm")) returns 15 
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Durations 
Hours 
(Number n) 
Duration 
Returns a Duration representing n hours. This function takes a number and converts it into a Duration type value, expressed in hours. 
Hours(4) returns a 4 hour duration
[Intake Time]+Hours(2) returns the time of day from the Intake Time field plus two hours.
Hours([Test Length in Hours]) converts the numeric value in the Test Length in Hours field into a duration expressed in hours. The number doesn't change, just the data type. 
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Special 
If 
(Boolean condition1, <any> result1, ..., <any> elseresult) 
<same type as result1> 
If condition1 is true, returns result1, otherwise returns elseresult.
You can include additional condition/result pairs before the final elseresult (as in the first example). QuickBase evaluates the conditions in sequence until one is found to be true, and then the corresponding result is returned.
The elseresult is optional. If omitted, QuickBase assumes it's null (or empty  a blank).
All conditions must be of type Boolean (return a true or a false). Results may be of any type, but they must all be the same type.

If([Grade]="A", 100, [Grade]="B", 90)
This formula says: if the value in the Grade field is A, then return 100. If the value in the Grade field is B, then return 90.
IF([Order Complete]=TRUE, [Subtotal] + [Tax], null)
This formula says: If the Order Complete checkbox is on, then add the value in the subtotal field to the value in the tax field and display it. If not, then leave the field empty (or null).

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Special 
Includes 
(UserList ul, UserList ul1,UserList ul2 ..) 
Boolean 
This function takes 2 or more listuser field types as arguments and returns true if the contents of all the the arguments together, except for the first, are included in the contents of first argument; false otherwise. 
Includes ([Assigned To] , [Manager], [Employee])
This will return true if all the users in the Manager field and Employee field are selected for Assigned To field. 
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Numbers 
Int 
(Number n) 
Number 
Returns the integer part of Number n.
Note that if n is a negative fraction, the result is closer to 0 than n is (compare to function Floor). 
Int(3.6) returns 3
Int(3) returns 3
Int(3.6) returns 3

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Dates 
IsLeapDay 
(Date d) 
Boolean 
Returns true if d is February 29. 
IsLeapDay([Date Due]) returns true if the value in the Date Due field falls on a leap day like 2/29/08. 
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Dates 
IsLeapYear 
(Date d) 
Boolean 
Returns true if the date d falls in a leap year. 
IsLeapYear([Release Date]) returns true if the date in the Release Date field falls in a leap year like 2008. If it occurs in a non leap year, like 2007, the result is false. 
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Dates 
IsLeapYear 
(Number y) 
Boolean 
Returns true if the year y is a leap year. 
IsLeapYear(2007) returns false.
IsLeapYear(2008) returns true. 
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Null Handling 
IsNull 
(<any> x) 
Boolean 
Null means that a field's value is undefined. In other words, no one has entered any data in that particular field. It's empty. Its value is null.
The result of this function is true if x is null, otherwise false. The argument x may be of any data type (except text or boolean). 
IsNull([Start Date]) returns true if the field named Start Date is undefined or empty.
IsNull(3.4) returns false 
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Special 
IsUserEmail 
(Text x) 
Boolean 
Returns true if x is the email address of the current user. 
IsUserEmail("john_smith@example.com") would return true if John Smith were accessing the table containing the formula field. 
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Dates 
IsWeekday 
(Date d) 
Boolean 
Returns true if d is a weekday, otherwise false. 
IsWeekday([Deliver On]) returns true if the date in the Deliver On field is a weekday. If not, the result is false.
IsWeekday(ToDate("6/20/2003")) returns true 
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Dates 
LastDayOfMonth 
(Date d) 
Date 
Returns the last day of the month in which the date falls. 
LastDayOfMonth([Service Date]) returns the date of the last day of the month in which the Service Date occurs.
LastDayOfMonth(ToDate("2/12/2008")) returns
02292008 
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Dates 
LastDayOfPeriod 
(Date d, Duration p, Date r) 
Date 
Returns the last day of the period in which the date falls.
The cycle of periods is defined by the given Duration p, repeated in sequence starting at the given reference date r. If the period p is not a whole number of days, the fractional part is ignored. 
LastDayOfPeriod([Payment Date], [Quarter Length in Days], [Fiscal Year Start Date]) returns the last day of the quarter in which the Payment Date falls. 
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Dates 
LastDayOfWeek 
(Date d) 
Date 
Returns the last day (Saturday) of the week in which the date falls. 
LastDayOfWeek([Date A]) + Days(1) returns the Sunday date of the week that follows the one in which Date A falls. 
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Dates 
LastDayOfYear 
(Date d) 
Date 
Returns the last day of the year in which the date falls. 
LastDayOfYear([Registration Date]) returns the last day of the year in which the Registration Date falls.
LastDayOfYear(Todate("August 4, 2009")) returns 12312009 
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Text 
Left 
(Text t, Number n) 
Text 
Returns the leftmost n characters from the Text argument t. 
Left("abcd", 2) returns "ab" 
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Text 
Left 
(Text t, Text d) 
Text 
Returns the left part of a text value up to but not including the first occurrence of a delimiter character. The first argument, t, is the value to be searched. The second argument, d, is a text value containing all the possible delimiter characters. 
Left("abc/def",";/,") returns "abc"
Left("Michael Smith", " ") returns "Michael" 
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Text 
Length 
(Text t) 
Number 
Returns the number of characters in t. 
Length("abc") returns 3 
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Text 
List 
(Text d, Text t1, Text t2, ...) 
Text 
Concatenates (strings together) all arguments starting with the second argument, using the first argument as the delimiter between them. If one of the arguments is blank, it and the corresponding delimiter are omitted. 
List("", "a", "b", "d") returns "abd"
List(", ", "a", "b", "", "d") returns "a, b, d"
List(", ", [Last Name], [First Name]) returns "Last Name, First Name" if both fields are not empty, returns "Last Name" if [First Name] is empty, and returns "First Name" if [Last Name] is empty.
List("\n", "Name", "Address Line 1", "", List(", ", "City", "State"), "Zip") returns
"Name
Address Line 1
City, State
Zip" 
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Numbers 
Ln 
(Number n) 
Number 
Returns the natural (base e) logarithm of n. 
Exp(Ln(72)) returns 72 
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Numbers 
Log 
(Number n) 
Number 
Returns the base 10 logarithm of n. 
Log(100) returns 2
10 ^ Log(72) returns 72 
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Text 
Lower 
(Text t) 
Text 
Returns t converted to lower case. 
Lower("ABC") returns "abc" 
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Aggregation 
Max 
(<any> x, <any> y, ...) 
<same type as x and y> 
This function can take 2 or more arguments of any data type, as long as they are all the same type. The result is the same data type as the arguments. Null values are ignored.
For Numbers, returns the argument that is greatest.
For Text, returns the argument that sorts last alphabetically.
For Durations, returns the argument that is longest.
For Dates returns the argument that is latest.
For Date/Time, returns the argument that is latest.
For TimeOfDays, returns the argument that is latest.
For Booleans returns the argument that is largest, treating false as less than true. 
Max (Days(2), Weeks(1)) returns 1 week
Max (10, 20, 30, 40) returns 40
Max (10, null, 30) returns 30
Max (null, null, null) returns null 
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Text 
Mid 
(Text t, Number p, Number n) 
Text 
Returns n characters from the middle of t, starting at position p. The first character is position 1. 
Mid("abcd", 2, 3) returns "bcd"
Mid("abcd", 4, 4) returns "d"

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Aggregation 
Min 
(<any> x, <any> y, ...) 
<same type as x and y> 
This function can take 2 or more arguments of any data type, as long as they are all the same type. The result is the same data type as the arguments. Null values are ignored.
For Numbers, returns the argument that is least.
For Text, returns the argument that sorts first alphabetically.
For Durations, returns the argument that is shortest.
For Dates returns the argument that is earliest.
For Date/Time, returns the argument that is earliest.
For TimeOfDays, returns the argument that is earliest.
For Booleans returns the argument that is smallest, treating false as less than true. 
Min (10, 20, 30, 40) returns 10
Min ([Date1], [Date2]) returns whichever date field's value is earlier
Min (Days(2), Weeks(1)) returns 2 days
in (10, null, 30) returns 10
Min (null, null, null) returns null 
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TimeOfDay 
Minute 
(TimeOfDay t) 
Number 
Returns the minute part of the argument t. The minute is in the range 0 to 59. 
Minute(ToTimeOfDay("3:04pm")) returns 4 
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Durations 
Minutes 
(Number n) 
Duration 
Returns a Duration representing n minutes. This function takes a number and converts it into a Duration type value, expressed in minutes. 
minutes(42) returns a duration of 42 minutes.
Minutes([Test Length in Minutes]) converts the numeric value in the Test Length in Minutes field into a duration expressed in minutes. The number doesn't change, just the data type.
[Start Time] + minutes(90) returns the time of day that 90 minutes after the time of day in the Start Time field. 
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