
Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
!= 
<any> x, <any> y 
Boolean 
Same as <>. Returns true if x is not equal to y, otherwise returns false. x and y must be the same type. As with most other functions, null argument values produce a null result, so it is not possible to test for null with this operator. To test for null, use IsNull() instead. 
(3 / 4 <> 0.75) returns false 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
& 
<any> u, <any> v 
Text 
Returns a text value that is the concatenation of u and v. Use this operator to link strings of characters together in a formula text field.
If u or v is not a text value, QuickBase automatically inserts the function ToText() to convert the value to text before concatenating it.
Does not support User or UserList. 
"abc" & "def" returns "abcdef"
"abc" & 5 returns "abc5"
[First Name] & " " & [Last Name] concatenates the values in the First Name and Last Name field with a space in between them. 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
* 
Number m, Number n 
Number 
Returns the product of m times n. 
[Price] * [Number of Units] multiplies the value in the Price field by the value in the Number of units field.
3 * 4 returns 12
0.5 * 5 returns 2.5 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
* 
Number n, Duration d 
Duration 
Returns a new Duration that is the given Duration d repeated n times. In other words, it's the duration multiplied by the number n. 
3 * Days(2) returns 6 days 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
* 
Duration d, Number n 
Duration 
Returns a new Duration that is the given Duration d repeated n times. In other words, it's the duration multiplied by the number n. 
Weeks(2) * 3 returns 6 weeks 
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Unary Operators (act on single values) 
+ 
Number n 
Number 
Returns n.
A +plus sign in front of a number returns a positive number. 
+5 returns 5
+5 returns 5 
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Unary Operators (act on single values) 
+ 
Duration d 
Duration 
Returns d.
A +plus sign in front of a duration returns a positive duration. 
+ Weeks(3) returns 3 weeks 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
+ 
Number m, Number n 
Number 
Returns the sum of m and n. 
3 + 4 returns 7
[Subtotal] + [Tax] returns the sum achieved by adding the value in the Subtotal field to the value in the Tax field. 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
+ 
Duration x, Duration y 
Duration 
Returns the duration that is the sum of x and y. 
Days(1) + Days(2) returns 3 days 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
+ 
Date d, Duration x 
Date 
Returns the date that is after date d by the duration x. x is truncated to a whole number of days. 
[Start Date] + [Duration] returns the date you get by adding the value in the Duration field to the date in the Start Date field.
ToDate("Jan 1, 2000") + Days(2) returns Jan 3, 2000 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
+ 
Duration x, Date d 
Date 
Returns the date that is after date d by the duration x. x is truncated to a whole number of days. 
Days(2) + ToDate("Jan 1, 2000") returns Jan 3, 2000 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
+ 
Date/Time t, Duration x 
Date/Time 
Returns the Date/Time that is after Date/Time t by the duration x. 
[Call Time] + [Review Period] returns the date and time that follows the date/time in the Call Time field by the duration listed in the Review Period field. 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
+ 
Duration x, Date/Time t 
Date/Time 
Returns the Date/Time that is after Date/Time t by the duration x. 
[Hours Worked] + [Start Time] returns the time of day resulting from adding the value in the Hours Worked field to the time in the Start Time field. 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
+ 
Duration d, TimeOfDay t 
TimeOfDay 
Returns the TimeOfDay that is after TimeOfDay t by the duration x. 
ToTimeOfDay("2 pm") + Hours(22) returns 12 pm 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
+ 
TimeOfDay t, Duration d 
TimeOfDay 
Returns the TimeOfDay that is after TimeOfDay t by the duration x. 
[Start Time] + [Hours Worked] returns the time of day resulting from adding the value in the Hours Worked field to the time in the Start Time field. 
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Unary Operators (act on single values) 
 
Number n 
Number 
Returns the arithmetic negative of n. 
5 returns 5
5 returns 5

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Unary Operators (act on single values) 
 
Duration d 
Duration 
Returns the arithmetic negative of d. 
Weeks(3) returns 3 weeks
Weeks(3) returns 3 weeks 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
 
Number m, Number n 
Number 
Returns the difference of m and n. 
7  3 returns 4
7  2 returns 9 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
 
Duration x, Duration y 
Duration 
Returns the difference of x and y. 
Weeks(1)  Days(2) returns 5 days
Days(1)  Weeks(1) returns 6 days 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
 
Date d, Duration x 
Date 
Returns the date that is before date d by the duration x. x is truncated to a whole number of days. 
[Finish]  [Duration] returns the date you get by subracting the value in the Duration field from the date in the Finish field.
ToDate("Jan 3, 2000")  Days(2) returns Jan 1, 2000 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
 
Date d, Date e 
Duration 
Returns the duration between dates d and e. 
[Actual Date Completed]  [Forecast Date] returns the duration between the date in the Actual Date Completed field and the one in the Forecast Date field.
ToDate("Jan 3, 2000")  ToDate("Jan 1, 2000") returns 2 days 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
 
Date/Time t, Duration x 
Date/Time 
Returns the Date/Time that is before Date/Time t by the duration x. 
[Event Start]  [Days to Prepare] returns the Date and time that precedes the event start by the number of days in the Days to Prepare field. 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
 
Date/Time t, Date/Time u 
Duration 
Returns the duration between Date/Time values t and u. 
[Created]  [Time/Date Resolved] 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
 
TimeOfDay t, Duration d 
TimeOfDay 
Returns the TimeOfDay that is before TimeOfDay t by the duration d. 
[Meeting Start]  [Hours of Prep] returns the time that precedes the Meeting Start time by the number of hours listed in the Hours of Prep field. 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
 
TimeOfDay t, TimeOfDay u 
Duration 
Returns the duration between TimeOfDay t and TimeOfDay u.
The result may be positive or negative depending on whether t is after or before u. 
[End]  [Start] returns the duration you get by subtracting the time value in the Start field from the value in the End field.
ToTimeOfDay("3pm")  ToTimeOfDay("2pm") returns 1 hour
ToTimeOfDay("2pm")  ToTimeOfDay("3pm") returns 1 hour 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
/ 
Number m, Number n 
Number 
Returns m divided by n. 
6 / 4 returns 1.5

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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
/ 
Duration x, Duration y 
Number 
Returns the number of times that Duration y divides into x. 
Weeks(1) / Days(1) returns 7

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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
/ 
Duration x, Number n 
Duration 
Returns a new Duration that is x divided by n. 
Weeks(2) / 2 returns 1 week

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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
< 
<any> x, <any> y 
Boolean 
Returns true if x is less than y, otherwise returns false.
x and y must be the same type.
For Numbers, the comparison is numerical.
For Durations, the comparison is done using length of time represented.
For Text, the comparison is done by alphabetical sort order.
For Dates and Date/Time values, the comparison is done by chronological order.
For Booleans, false is less than true. 
3 < 4 returns true
4 < 3 returns false
"abcdef" < "gh" returns true

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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
<= 
<any> x, <any> y 
Boolean 
Returns true if x is less than or equal to y, otherwise returns false.
x and y must be the same type.
For Numbers, the comparison is numerical.
For Durations, the comparison is done using length of time represented.
For Text, the comparison is done by alphabetical sort order.
For Dates and Date/Time values, the comparison is done by chronological order.
For Booleans, false is less than true. 
3 <= 4 returns true
"abcdef" <= "gh" returns true 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
<> 
<any> x, <any> y 
Boolean 
Same as !=. Returns true if x is not equal to y, otherwise returns false. x and y must be the same type. As with most other functions, null argument values produce a null result, so it is not possible to test for null with this operator. To test for null, use IsNull() instead. 
(3 / 4 <> 0.75) returns false 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
= 
<any> x, <any> y 
Boolean 
Returns true if x is equal to y, otherwise returns false.
x and y must be the same type.
As with most other functions, null argument values produce a null result, so it is not possible to test for null with this operator. To test for null, use IsNull() instead. 
(3 / 4 = 0.75) returns true

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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
> 
<any> x, <any> y 
Boolean 
Returns true if x is greater than y, otherwise returns false.
x and y must be the same type.
For Numbers, the comparison is numerical.
For Durations, the comparison is done using length of time represented.
For Text, the comparison is done by alphabetical sort order.
For Dates and Date/Time values, the comparison is done by chronological order.
For Booleans, false is less than true. 
3 > 4 returns false
[Actual Completion Date] >= [Projected Completion Date] returns true if the value in the the Actual Completion Date field is greater than the date in the Project Completion Date field.
Weeks(1) > Days(6) returns true

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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
>= 
<any> x, <any> y 
Boolean 
Returns true if x is greater than or equal to y, otherwise returns false.
x and y must be the same type.
For Numbers, the comparison is numerical.
For Durations, the comparison is done using length of time represented.
For Text, the comparison is done by alphabetical sort order.
For Dates and Date/Time values, the comparison is done by chronological order.
For Booleans, false is less than true. 
[Actual Completion Date] >= [Projected Completion Date] returns true if the value in the the Actual Completion Date field is greater than or equal to the date in the Project Completion Date field.
ToDate("Jan 1, 2000") >= ToDate("Feb 1, 1999") returns true 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
^ 
Number m, Number n 
Number 
Returns m raised to the nth power. 
2 ^ 3 returns 8
9 ^ 0.5 returns 3
2 ^ 3 returns 0.125 
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Numbers 
Abs 
(Number n) 
Number 
Returns the absolute value of the Number n. 
Abs(3.5) returns 3.5
Abs(3.5) returns 3.5

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Durations 
Abs 
(Duration d) 
Duration 
Returns the absolute value of d. 
Abs(Weeks(3.5)) returns 3.5 weeks
Abs(Weeks(3.5)) returns 3.5 weeks

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Dates 
AdjustMonth 
(Date d, Number m) 
Date 
Returns the date which is m months after the given date d, with the same day number. If the day doesn't exist in that month, the last day of that month is returned. 
AdjustMonth([Ordered On], 3) returns the date three months after the date in the Ordered On field.
AdjustMonth(ToDate("2/20/99"), 2) returns April 20, 1999
AdjustMonth(ToDate("4/29/99"), 2) returns February 28, 1999 
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Dates 
AdjustYear 
(Date d, Number y) 
Date 
Returns the date which is y years after the given date d, with the same month and day. If the day doesn't exist in that month, the last day of that month is returned. 
AdjustYear([Last Appt], 1) returns the date one year after the date in the Last Appt field.
AdjustYear([Date],1) returns the date one year before the value in the Date field,
AdjustYear(ToDate("2/20/99"), 2) returns February 20, 2001
AdjustYear(ToDate("2/29/00"), 1) returns February 28, 1999 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
and 
Boolean a, Boolean b 
Boolean 
Returns true if a and b are both true, otherwise returns false.
Use this operator to link conditions together. 
(true and false) returns false
[Decision  Technical Lead]="Approved" and
[Decision  Project Manager]="Approved" and
[Decision  Project Sponsor]="Approved"
returns true if all three fields contain the value "approved" 
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Special 
AppID 
() 
Text 
Returns a text value containing the database ID of the app. 
AppID() in this app returns "6ewwzuuj" 
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Aggregation 
Average 
(Number n, ...) 
Number 
Returns the average of all the arguments (except any null values). 
Average(12, 6, null) returns 9

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Aggregation 
Average 
(Duration d, ...) 
Duration 
Returns the average of all the arguments (except any null values). 
Average(Days(1), Days(3)) returns 2 days 
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Aggregation 
Average 
(Date d, ...) 
Date 
Returns the average of all the arguments (except any null values). 
Average(ToDate("1/1/2000"), ToDate("1/3/2000")) returns the date 1/2/2000 
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Aggregation 
Average 
(Date/Time t, ...) 
Date/Time 
Returns the average of all the arguments (except any null values). 
average([Actual Finish], [Planned Finish]) 
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Aggregation 
Average 
(TimeOfDay t, ...) 
TimeOfDay 
Returns the average of all the arguments (except any null values). 
Average([Mon Start Time], [Tues Start Time], [Wed Start Time]) returns the average of all three start times. 
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Encoding Functions 
Base64Decode 
(Text t) 
Text 
Decodes text using base64 encoding. 
Base64Decode("aGVsbG8gd29ybGQ=") returns "hello world" 
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Encoding Functions 
Base64Encode 
(Text t) 
Text 
Encodes text using base64 encoding. 
Base64Encode("hello world") returns "aGVsbG8gd29ybGQ=" 
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Text 
Begins 
(Text u, Text v) 
Boolean 
Returns true if the text u begins with the text v, otherwise returns false. 
Begins("abcdef", "cd") returns false
Begins("abcdef", "abcd") returns true

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Special 
Case 
(<any> x, <any> val1, <any> result1, ..., <any> elseresult) 
<same type as result1> 
Case() is a variation of the If() function. If you want to test many conditions against a single field, use the Case() function instead of the If() function.
QuickBase evaluates the value x and compares it to each of the values that follow (val1 and so on) sequentially. If the value X matches any value, QuickBase returns the corresponding result which lives behind the comma following the matched value. If value x is not equal to any of the values, QuickBase returns the elseresult at the end of the formula.
The elseresult is optional. If omitted, QuickBase assumes it's null (empty).
The value x may be of any data type, but all of the values must be of the same type as x.

Case([Grade], "A", 100, "B", 90, null)
This formula says: If the value in the Grade field is A, then return 100. If the value in the Grade field is B, then return 90. Otherwise, return nothing (null).

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Rounding and Truncating 
Ceil 
(Number x) 
Number 
Returns the smallest integer greater than or equal to the number x. 
Ceil(3) returns 3
Ceil(3.4) returns 4
Ceil(3.4) returns 3

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Rounding and Truncating 
Ceil 
(Number x, Number y) 
Number 
Returns the smallest multiple of y which is greater than or equal to x. 
Ceil(3.5, 2) returns 4
Ceil(3.5, 2) returns 2 
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Rounding and Truncating 
Ceil 
(Duration x, Duration y) 
Duration 
Returns the smallest multiple of the duration y which is greater than or equal to the duration x. 
Ceil(Days(3.5), Days(2)) returns Days(4)

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Text 
Contains 
(Text u, Text v) 
Boolean 
Returns true if v is contained in u, otherwise returns false. 
Contains("abcdef", "cd") returns true
Contains([Status], "open") returns true if the Status field contains the word "open" 
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TextList 
Contains 
(TextList textList, Text textToSearchFor) 
Boolean 
Returns true if textToSearchFor is contained in textList, otherwise returns false. Comparison is not case sensitive. 
Contains([Skills Required], "Kung fu") returns true if the "Skills required" field has as one of its selected options "Kung fu" 
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UserList 
Contains 
Contains (UserList userList, User userToSearchFor) 
Boolean 
Returns true if userToSearchFor is contained in userList, otherwise returns false. 
Contains([Team members], [Assigned To]) returns true if the value of the "Assigned To" field appears in the "Team members" list 
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Aggregation 
Count 
(<any> x, ...) 
Number 
Counts the number of nonnull arguments. For Text arguments, nonblanks are counted. For Boolean arguments, trues are counted.
This function can also be used in the context of a Summary report where it will count the # of Nonnull records for each grouping, if used to specify the field to check in a Calculated Column. 
Count ("", "abc", true, false, 53) returns 3
For the Summary Report example, a formula might look something like this:
Count([Field])
This might be used if the customer were trying to determine  within the Summary Report groups  how many of these records had a value in [Field] 
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Dates 
Date 
(Number year, Number month, Number day) 
Date 
Creates a date from a year, month and day. 
Date(2000, 1, 10) returns the date January 10, 2000 
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Dates 
Day 
(Date d) 
Number 
Returns the day of the month of the given Date d. 
Day([Start Date]) returns the day of the month for the date that appears in the Start Date field.
Day(ToDate("Jan 10, 2000")) returns 10 
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Dates 
DayOfWeek 
(Date d) 
Number 
Returns the number of days by which the given date d follows the first day of the week (Sunday returns 0). 
DayOfWeek([Start Date]) returns the number of the day of the week for the date that appears in the Start Date field.
DayOfWeek(ToDate("Aug 23, 2000")) returns 3
DayOfWeek(ToDate("Aug 20, 2000")) returns 0 
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Dates 
DayOfYear 
(Date d) 
Number 
Returns the number of days by which the given date d follows the first day of the year (January 1 returns 0). 
DayOfYear(ToDate("Jan 1, 2000")) returns 0
DayOfYear(ToDate("Jan 10, 2000")) returns 9 
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Durations 
Days 
(Number n) 
Duration 
Returns a Duration representing n days. This function takes a number and converts it into a Duration type value, expressed in days. 
Days(1.5) returns a 1.5 day duration
Days([Estimated # of days]) converts the numeric value in the Estimated # of days field into a duration expressed in days. The number doesn't change, just the data type. 
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Special 
Dbid 
() 
Text 
Returns a Text value containing the database ID of a table. 
Dbid() in this database returns "6ewwzuuj" 
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Text 
Ends 
(Text u, Text v) 
Boolean 
Returns true if the text u ends with the text v, otherwise returns false. 
Ends("abcdef", "cd") returns false
Ends("abcdef", "cdef") returns true

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Numbers 
Exp 
(Number n) 
Number 
Returns e raised to the nth power, where e is approximately 2.71828182845905
This exponential function is for use in logarithmic calculations that track growth. For example, you can use it to figure compounding interest. 
Exp(2) returns 7.389056 (which is e, or 2.71828182845905, to the 2nd power)
Exp(5) returns 148.413159 (e to the 5th power) 
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Dates 
FirstDayOfMonth 
(Date d) 
Date 
Returns the first day of the month in which the date falls. 
FirstDayOfMonth([Order Date]) returns the first day of the month in which the Order Date occurs.
FirstDayOfMonth(Today()) returns the first day of the current month. 
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Dates 
FirstDayOfPeriod 
(Date d, Duration p, Date r) 
Date 
Returns the first day of the period in which the date d falls.
The cycle of periods is defined by the given Duration p, repeated in sequence starting at the given reference date r. If the period p is not a whole number of days, the fractional part is ignored. 
Useful for handling biweekly pay periods.
FirstDayOfPeriod([date field], Weeks(2), Date(2000,5,1)) returns the date that is the start of the two week period in which the date in the date field falls. The initial two week period that starts the cycle begins on May 1, 2000.
FirstDayOfPeriod(Today(), Days(365), Date(2005,7,1)) returns the date July 1st of the current yearlong period. Between 7/1/06 and 7/1/07 this would be July 1, 2006. (As the years go on, this method won't account for leap years.) 
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Dates 
FirstDayOfWeek 
(Date d) 
Date 
Returns the first day (Sunday) of the week in which the date falls. 
FirstDayOfWeek([Start Date]) returns the date of the Sunday (first day of the week) in which the Start Date occurs.
FirstDayOfWeek(ToDate("7/30/2007")) returns the date 72907 
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Dates 
FirstDayOfYear 
(Date d) 
Date 
Returns the first day of the year in which the date falls. 
FirstDayOfYear([Termination Date]) returns the first day of the year in which the Termination date occurs.
FirstDayOfYear(Today()) returns the first day of the current year. 
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Rounding and Truncating 
Floor 
(Number x) 
Number 
Returns the largest integer less than or equal to the number x.
Note that if x is a negative fraction, the result is closer to negative infinity than x is (compare to function Int). 
Floor(3) returns 3
Floor(3.4) returns 3
Floor (3.8) returns 3
Floor(3.4) returns 4

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Rounding and Truncating 
Floor 
(Number x, Number y) 
Number 
Returns the largest multiple of y which is less than or equal to x. 
Floor(3.5, 2) returns 2
Floor(3.5, 2) returns 4 
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Rounding and Truncating 
Floor 
(Duration x, Duration y) 
Duration 
Returns the largest multiple of the duration y which is less than or equal to the duration x. 
Floor(Days(3.5), Days(2)) returns Days(2)

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Numbers 
Frac 
(Number n) 
Number 
Returns the fractional part of the Number n. The result is the same sign as n. For any Number n, Int(n) + Frac(n) is the same as n. 
Frac(3.4) returns 0.4
Frac(2.3) returns 0.3 
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TimeOfDay 
Hour 
(TimeOfDay t) 
Number 
Returns the hour part of the argument t. The hour is in the range 0 to 23. 
Hour(ToTimeOfDay("3:04pm")) returns 15 
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Durations 
Hours 
(Number n) 
Duration 
Returns a Duration representing n hours. This function takes a number and converts it into a Duration type value, expressed in hours. 
Hours(4) returns a 4 hour duration
[Intake Time]+Hours(2) returns the time of day from the Intake Time field plus two hours.
Hours([Test Length in Hours]) converts the numeric value in the Test Length in Hours field into a duration expressed in hours. The number doesn't change, just the data type. 
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Special 
If 
(Boolean condition1, <any> result1, ..., <any> elseresult) 
<same type as result1> 
If condition1 is true, returns result1, otherwise returns elseresult.
You can include additional condition/result pairs before the final elseresult (as in the first example). QuickBase evaluates the conditions in sequence until one is found to be true, and then the corresponding result is returned.
The elseresult is optional. If omitted, QuickBase assumes it's null (or empty  a blank).
All conditions must be of type Boolean (return a true or a false). Results may be of any type, but they must all be the same type.

If([Grade]="A", 100, [Grade]="B", 90)
This formula says: if the value in the Grade field is A, then return 100. If the value in the Grade field is B, then return 90.
IF([Order Complete]=TRUE, [Subtotal] + [Tax], null)
This formula says: If the Order Complete checkbox is on, then add the value in the subtotal field to the value in the tax field and display it. If not, then leave the field empty (or null).

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Special 
Includes 
(UserList ul, UserList ul1,UserList ul2 ..) 
Boolean 
This function takes 2 or more listuser field types as arguments and returns true if the contents of all the the arguments together, except for the first, are included in the contents of first argument; false otherwise. 
Includes ([Assigned To] , [Manager], [Employee])
This will return true if all the users in the Manager field and Employee field are selected for Assigned To field. 
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Numbers 
Int 
(Number n) 
Number 
Returns the integer part of Number n.
Note that if n is a negative fraction, the result is closer to 0 than n is (compare to function Floor). 
Int(3.6) returns 3
Int(3) returns 3
Int(3.6) returns 3

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Dates 
IsLeapDay 
(Date d) 
Boolean 
Returns true if d is February 29. 
IsLeapDay([Date Due]) returns true if the value in the Date Due field falls on a leap day like 2/29/08. 
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Dates 
IsLeapYear 
(Date d) 
Boolean 
Returns true if the date d falls in a leap year. 
IsLeapYear([Release Date]) returns true if the date in the Release Date field falls in a leap year like 2008. If it occurs in a non leap year, like 2007, the result is false. 
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Dates 
IsLeapYear 
(Number y) 
Boolean 
Returns true if the year y is a leap year. 
IsLeapYear(2007) returns false.
IsLeapYear(2008) returns true. 
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Null Handling 
IsNull 
(<any> x) 
Boolean 
Null means that a field's value is undefined. In other words, no one has entered any data in that particular field. It's empty. Its value is null.
The result of this function is true if x is null, otherwise false. The argument x may be of any data type (except text or boolean). 
IsNull([Start Date]) returns true if the field named Start Date is undefined or empty.
IsNull(3.4) returns false 
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Special 
IsUserEmail 
(Text x) 
Boolean 
Returns true if x is the email address of the current user. 
IsUserEmail("john_smith@example.com") would return true if John Smith were accessing the table containing the formula field. 
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Dates 
IsWeekday 
(Date d) 
Boolean 
Returns true if d is a weekday, otherwise false. 
IsWeekday([Deliver On]) returns true if the date in the Deliver On field is a weekday. If not, the result is false.
IsWeekday(ToDate("6/20/2003")) returns true 
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Dates 
LastDayOfMonth 
(Date d) 
Date 
Returns the last day of the month in which the date falls. 
LastDayOfMonth([Service Date]) returns the date of the last day of the month in which the Service Date occurs.
LastDayOfMonth(ToDate("2/12/2008")) returns
02292008 
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Dates 
LastDayOfPeriod 
(Date d, Duration p, Date r) 
Date 
Returns the last day of the period in which the date falls.
The cycle of periods is defined by the given Duration p, repeated in sequence starting at the given reference date r. If the period p is not a whole number of days, the fractional part is ignored. 
LastDayOfPeriod([Payment Date], [Quarter Length in Days], [Fiscal Year Start Date]) returns the last day of the quarter in which the Payment Date falls. 
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Dates 
LastDayOfWeek 
(Date d) 
Date 
Returns the last day (Saturday) of the week in which the date falls. 
LastDayOfWeek([Date A]) + Days(1) returns the Sunday date of the week that follows the one in which Date A falls. 
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Dates 
LastDayOfYear 
(Date d) 
Date 
Returns the last day of the year in which the date falls. 
LastDayOfYear([Registration Date]) returns the last day of the year in which the Registration Date falls.
LastDayOfYear(Todate("August 4, 2009")) returns 12312009 
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Text 
Left 
(Text t, Number n) 
Text 
Returns the leftmost n characters from the Text argument t. 
Left("abcd", 2) returns "ab" 
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Text 
Left 
(Text t, Text d) 
Text 
Returns the left part of a text value up to but not including the first occurrence of a delimiter character. The first argument, t, is the value to be searched. The second argument, d, is a text value containing all the possible delimiter characters. 
Left("abc/def",";/,") returns "abc"
Left("Michael Smith", " ") returns "Michael" 
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Text 
Length 
(Text t) 
Number 
Returns the number of characters in t. 
Length("abc") returns 3 
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Text 
List 
(Text d, Text t1, Text t2, ...) 
Text 
Concatenates (strings together) all arguments starting with the second argument, using the first argument as the delimiter between them. If one of the arguments is blank, it and the corresponding delimiter are omitted. 
List("", "a", "b", "d") returns "abd"
List(", ", "a", "b", "", "d") returns "a, b, d"
List(", ", [Last Name], [First Name]) returns "Last Name, First Name" if both fields are not empty, returns "Last Name" if [First Name] is empty, and returns "First Name" if [Last Name] is empty.
List("\n", "Name", "Address Line 1", "", List(", ", "City", "State"), "Zip") returns
"Name
Address Line 1
City, State
Zip" 
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Numbers 
Ln 
(Number n) 
Number 
Returns the natural (base e) logarithm of n. 
Exp(Ln(72)) returns 72 
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Numbers 
Log 
(Number n) 
Number 
Returns the base 10 logarithm of n. 
Log(100) returns 2
10 ^ Log(72) returns 72 
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Text 
Lower 
(Text t) 
Text 
Returns t converted to lower case. 
Lower("ABC") returns "abc" 
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Aggregation 
Max 
(<any> x, <any> y, ...) 
<same type as x and y> 
This function can take 2 or more arguments of any data type, as long as they are all the same type. The result is the same data type as the arguments. Null values are ignored.
For Numbers, returns the argument that is greatest.
For Text, returns the argument that sorts last alphabetically.
For Durations, returns the argument that is longest.
For Dates returns the argument that is latest.
For Date/Time, returns the argument that is latest.
For TimeOfDays, returns the argument that is latest.
For Booleans returns the argument that is largest, treating false as less than true. 
Max (Days(2), Weeks(1)) returns 1 week
Max (10, 20, 30, 40) returns 40
Max (10, null, 30) returns 30
Max (null, null, null) returns null 
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Text 
Mid 
(Text t, Number p, Number n) 
Text 
Returns n characters from the middle of t, starting at position p. The first character is position 1. 
Mid("abcd", 2, 3) returns "bcd"
Mid("abcd", 4, 4) returns "d"

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Aggregation 
Min 
(<any> x, <any> y, ...) 
<same type as x and y> 
This function can take 2 or more arguments of any data type, as long as they are all the same type. The result is the same data type as the arguments. Null values are ignored.
For Numbers, returns the argument that is least.
For Text, returns the argument that sorts first alphabetically.
For Durations, returns the argument that is shortest.
For Dates returns the argument that is earliest.
For Date/Time, returns the argument that is earliest.
For TimeOfDays, returns the argument that is earliest.
For Booleans returns the argument that is smallest, treating false as less than true. 
Min (10, 20, 30, 40) returns 10
Min ([Date1], [Date2]) returns whichever date field's value is earlier
Min (Days(2), Weeks(1)) returns 2 days
in (10, null, 30) returns 10
Min (null, null, null) returns null 
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TimeOfDay 
Minute 
(TimeOfDay t) 
Number 
Returns the minute part of the argument t. The minute is in the range 0 to 59. 
Minute(ToTimeOfDay("3:04pm")) returns 4 
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Durations 
Minutes 
(Number n) 
Duration 
Returns a Duration representing n minutes. This function takes a number and converts it into a Duration type value, expressed in minutes. 
minutes(42) returns a duration of 42 minutes.
Minutes([Test Length in Minutes]) converts the numeric value in the Test Length in Minutes field into a duration expressed in minutes. The number doesn't change, just the data type.
[Start Time] + minutes(90) returns the time of day that 90 minutes after the time of day in the Start Time field. 
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Numbers 
Mod 
(Number n, Number m) 
Number 
Returns n modulo m. Mod implements 'clock' arithmetic; it models movement around a clock that is labeled with the numbers 0 to m1. To get the result, just count n times around the clock. (Mod is the same as Rem for positive numbers, but different for negative numbers.)
You might use this function to autoassign tasks to staff members. For details, please read this article

Mod(7,3) returns 1
Mod(7,3) returns 2
Mod(7,3) returns 1
Mod(7,3) returns 2
Sample autoassign formula:
If (Mod([Record ID#],ToNumber([number_of_reps])) = 0, ToUser("jsmith"),
Mod([Record ID#],ToNumber([number_of_reps])) = 1, ToUser("bboop"),
Mod([Record ID#],ToNumber([number_of_reps])) = 2, ToUser("ppeabody")) 
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Durations 
Mod 
(Duration n, Duration m) 
Duration 
Returns n modulo m. (Mod is the same as Rem for positive numbers, but different for negative numbers.) 
Mod(Days(4), Days(3)) = Days(1)
Mod(Days(4), Days(3)) = Days(2)
Mod(Days(4), Days(3)) = Days(1)
Mod(Days(4), Days(3)) = Days(2)

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Dates 
Month 
(Date d) 
Number 
Returns the month number of the Date d. January is month 1. 
Month([Start Date]) returns the number of the month within the date that appears in the Start Date field.
Month(ToDate("Jan 10, 2000") returns 1 
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TimeOfDay 
MSecond 
(TimeOfDay t) 
Number 
Returns the millisecond part of the argument t. The millisecond is in the range 0 to 999. 
MSecond(ToTimeOfDay("3:04:01.344 pm")) returns 344 
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Durations 
MSeconds 
(Number n) 
Duration 
Returns a Duration representing n milliseconds. This function takes a number and converts it into a Duration type value, expressed in milliseconds. 
Mseconds(250) returns a duration of 250 seconds.
Mseconds([Shutter Time]) converts the numeric value in the Shutter Time field into a duration expressed in milliseconds. The number doesn't change, just the data type. 
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Dates 
NextDayOfWeek 
(Date d, Number n) 
Date 
Returns the first day after the given date d that falls on the weekday n.
n is a number from 0 to 6 with Sunday being 0, Monday being 1, Tuesday being 2, and so on. 
NextDayOfWeek([Date Submitted], 2) returns the first Tuesday that follows the Date in the Date Submitted field. 
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Unary Operators (act on single values) 
not 
Boolean b 
Boolean 
Returns the logical negation of b (if b is true, returns false, otherwise returns true). 
(not true) returns false
(not not false) returns false
not isnull([Finish Date]) returns true if the Finish Date field has contentin other words, it's not null, or empty. (Read more about nulls at: https://www.quickbase.com/help/using_formulas_in_quickbase.html#null) 
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Text 
NotLeft 
(Text t, Number n) 
Text 
Returns what remains after excluding the leftmost n characters from the Text argument t. 
NotLeft("abcde", 2) returns "cde" 
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Text 
NotLeft 
(Text t, Text d) 
Text 
Returns what remains after excluding the left part of a text value up to and including the first occurrence of a delimiter character. The first argument, t, is the value to be searched. The second argument, d, is a text value containing all the possible delimiter characters.
If space is included in the delimiter list it is handled specially. It acts as a delimiter, but contiguous spaces surrounding a delimiter are ignored rather than each acting as a separate delimiter. 
NotLeft("abc/ def/ghi"," ;/,") returns "def/ghi"
NotLeft("Michael Wissner", " ") returns "Wissner" 
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Text 
NotRight 
(Text t, Number n) 
Text 
Returns what remains after excluding the rightmost n characters from the Text argument t. 
NotRight("ABCDE", 2) returns "ABC" 
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Text 
NotRight 
(Text t, Text d) 
Text 
Returns what remains after excluding the right part of a text value starting at the last occurrence of a delimiter character. The first argument, t, is the value to be searched. The second argument, d, is a text value containing all the possible delimiter characters.
If space is included in the delimiter list it is handled specially. It acts as a delimiter, but contiguous spaces surrounding a delimiter are ignored rather than each acting as a separate delimiter. 
NotRight("abc/ def"," ;/,") returns "abc"
NotRight("Michael Wissner", " ") returns "Michael" 
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Timestamps 
Now 
() 
Date/Time 
Returns a Date / Time value representing the current moment. 
now()  [Date Created] returns the duration between the current moment and the date the record was created. 
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Null Handling 
Nz 
(Number x) 
Number 
This function returns x if x is not null. If it is null, it returns 0 instead.
An undefined or empty field is "null." Null values don't work in numeric calculations, which is where the Nz() function comes in handy. When Nz() finds a null, it sees it as a zero. So, if you want to perform calculations on a field that may include a null, use the Nz function. 
Nz(4) returns 4
Nz(0) returns 0
Nz(null) returns 0
Nz([Mon]) + Nz([Tues] + Nz([Wed]) + Nz([Thurs]) + Nz([Fri]) returns the total of all numbers found in these day of the week fields. If a field is empty, Nz() reads it as a zero. 
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Null Handling 
Nz 
(Duration d) 
Duration 
This function returns d if d is not null. If it is null, it returns a 0length duration instead.
An undefined or empty field is "null." Null values don't work in calculations, which is where the Nz() function comes in handy. When Nz() finds a null, it sees it as a zero. So, if you want to perform calculations on a field that may include a null, use the Nz function. 
Nz([Actual Duration]) + Nz([Actual Duration 1]) + Nz([Actual Duration 2]) returns the totals of values in all these duration fields. 
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Null Handling 
Nz 
(Number x, Number y) 
Number 
This function returns x if x is not null. If it is null, it returns the alternate value y instead.
Null means that a field's value is undefined. In other words, no one has entered any data in that particular field. It's empty. Its value is null. 
Nz(34, 100) returns 34
Nz(null, 100) returns 100
Nz([Final Sales Price], [Price Quote]) returns the value in the Final Sales Price field, if it exists. If Final Sales Price is empty (null), then this example returns the value in the Price Quote field. 
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Null Handling 
Nz 
(Duration x, Duration y) 
Duration 
This function returns x if x is not null. If it is null, it returns the alternate value y instead.
Null means that a field's value is undefined. In other words, no one has entered any data in that particular field. It's empty. Its value is null. 
Nz([Length of Project], [Estimated Length of Project] returns the value in the Length of Project field, if it exists. If there is no value in the Length of Project field, this formula returns the value in the Estimated Length of Project field. 
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Null Handling 
Nz 
(Date x, Date y) 
Date 
This function returns x if x is not null. If it is null, it returns the alternate value y instead.
Null means that a field's value is undefined. In other words, no one has entered any data in that particular field. It's empty. Its value is null.

Nz([Actual Finish Date], [Estimated Finish Date]) returns the value in the Actual Finish Date field, if it exists. If the Actual Finish Date field is empty, this formula returns the date in the Estimated Finish Date field. 
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Null Handling 
Nz 
(Date/Time x, Date/Time y) 
Date/Time 
This function returns x if x is not null. If it is null, it returns the alternate value y instead.
Null means that a field's value is undefined. In other words, no one has entered any data in that particular field. It's empty. Its value is null.

Nz([Timestamp of Request], [Date Created]) returns the value from the Timestamp of Request field, if it exists. If there is no value in that field, this formula returns the value from the Date Created field instead. 
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Null Handling 
Nz 
(TimeOfDay x, TimeOfDay y) 
TimeOfDay 
This function returns x if x is not null. If it is null, it returns the alternate value y instead.
Null means that a field's value is undefined. In other words, no one has entered any data in that particular field. It's empty. Its value is null. 
Nz([Finish Time], [Closing Time]) returns the value in the Finish Time field, if it exists. If there is no value in the Finish Time field, this formula returns the value in the Closing Time field. 
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Binary Operators (act on multiple values) 
or 
Boolean a, Boolean b 
Boolean 
Returns true if either a or b is true, otherwise returns false. 
(true or false) returns true 
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Text 
PadLeft 
(Text textToPad, Number targetLength, Text paddingText) 
Text 
Extends text to a target length by adding padding to the left of the text. If the text is already the target length or longer, then there's no change. Otherwise, the padding text is added as necessary to reach the target length. NOTE: This function pads up to a limit of 50 characters. 
PadLeft("123", 5, "0") returns "00123" 
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Text 
PadRight 
(Text textToPad, Number targetLength, Text paddingText) 
Text 
Extends text to a target length by adding padding to the right of the text. If the text is already the target length or longer, then there's no change. Otherwise, the padding text is added as necessary to reach the target length. NOTE: This function pads up to a limit of 50 characters. 
PadRight("123", 5, "**") returns "123**" 
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Text 
Part 
(Text t, Number p, Text d) 
Text 
Returns the specified part of a text value. The parts are separated by the occurrence of any delimiter character. The first argument, t, is the value to be searched. The second argument, p, is the position of the part in the argument t. The first part starting on the left is position 1. Negative part numbers can be used to start from the right. The third argument, d, is a text value containing all the possible delimiter characters.
If space is included in the delimiter list it is handled specially. It acts as a delimiter, but contiguous spaces surrounding a delimiter are ignored rather than each acting as a separate delimiter. 
Part("hh:mm:ss",1,":") returns "hh"
Part("hh:mm:ss",3,":") returns "ss"
Part("hh:mm:ss",1,":") returns "ss"
Part("hh:mm",3,":") returns ""
Part("abc, def,ghi",2," ,") returns "def"
Part([Append],2,"[") returns all text from the Append field that lives between the first [ character and the second [ character. This example shows how to extract only the most recent entry from an append field.

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Dates 
PrevDayOfWeek 
(Date d, Number n) 
Date 
Returns the last day before the given date d that falls on the weekday n.
n is a number from 0 to 6 with Sunday being 0, Monday being 1, Tuesday being 2, and so on. 
PrevDayOfWeek([Date Due], 5) returns the date of the last Friday that occurse before the Date Due. 
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Numbers 
PV 
(Number rate, Number nskip, Number amt) 
Number 
Calculates the Present Value of a future payment. Rate is the discount rate for one time period. Nskip is the number of time periods before the payment occurs. Amt is the amount of the payment. 
PV(.10, 2, 121) returns 100 
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Numbers 
PV 
(Number rate, Number nskip, Number amt, Number npay) 
Number 
Calculates the Present Value of a series of future payments. Rate is the discount rate for one time period. Nskip is the number of time periods before the first payment occurs. Amt is the amount of each payment. Npay is the number of payments in the series, spaced one time period apart. 
PV(.10, 1, 100, 3) returns 248.69 
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Encoding Functions 
QB32Decode 
(Text t) 
Number 
Decodes text back to an integer using a base32 encoding specific to Quick Base. 
QB32Decode("bpcwsmnz6") returns 1549023949564 
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Encoding Functions 
QB32Encode 
(Number p) 
Text 
Encodes an integer as text using a base32 encoding specific to Quick Base 
QB32Encode(1549023949564) returns "bpcwsmnz6" 
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Numbers 
Rem 
(Number n, Number d) 
Number 
Returns a number that is the remainder after n is divided by d an integer number of times. (Mod is the same as Rem for positive numbers, but different for negative numbers.) 
Rem(7,3) returns 1
Rem(7,3) returns 1
Rem(7,3) returns 1
Rem(7,3) returns 1 
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Durations 
Rem 
(Duration n, Duration d) 
Duration 
Returns a Duration that is the remainder after n is divided by d an integer number of times. (Mod is the same as Rem for positive numbers, but different for negative numbers.) 
Rem(Days(4), Days(3)) = Days(1)
Rem(Days(4), Days(3)) = Days(1)
Rem(Days(4), Days(3)) = Days(1)
Rem(Days(4), Days(3)) = Days(1) 
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Text 
Right 
(Text t, Number n) 
Text 
Returns the rightmost n characters from the Text argument t. 
Right("ABCD", 2) returns "CD" 
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Text 
Right 
(Text t, Text d) 
Text 
Returns the right part of a text value starting at the character after the last occurrence of a delimiter character. The first argument, t, is the value to be searched. The second argument, d, is a text value containing all the possible delimiter characters. 
Right("abc/def",";/,") returns "def"
Right("Michael Wissner", " ") returns "Wissner" 
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Rounding and Truncating 
Round 
(Number x) 
Number 
Returns the nearest integer to the number x. The fraction .5 rounds up to the next greater integer. 
Round(3.2) = 3
Round(3.5) = 4
Round(3.7) = 4
Round(3.4) = 3
Round(3.5) = 3
Round(3.7) = 4

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Rounding and Truncating 
Round 
(Number x, Number y) 
Number 
Returns the multiple of y which is nearest to x.
You may notice small discrepancies when you use this function with floating point numbers. For example, Round(37.785,0.01) returns 37.78 instead of 37.79. This is not a QuickBasespecific issue; the discrepancies happen because some floating point numbers cannot be represented exactly in the binary format required by computers and are instead approximated. 
Round(3.12345, .01) returns 3.12
Round(3.6, 2) returns 4
Round(3.6, 2) returns 4

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Rounding and Truncating 
Round 
(Duration x, Duration y) 
Duration 
Returns the multiple of the duration y which is nearest the duration x. 
Round(Days(3.5), Days(2)) returns Days(4)

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Text 
SearchAndReplace 
(Text textToSearch, Text searchText, Text replacementText) 
Text 
Replaces all occurrences of a given search text with the replacement text. Search is case sensitive. 
SearchAndReplace("John Smith", "John", "Jane") returns "Jane Smith" 
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TimeOfDay 
Second 
(TimeOfDay t) 
Number 
Returns the second part of the argument t. The second is in the range 0 to 59. 
Second(ToTimeOfDay("3:04 pm")) returns 0 
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Durations 
Seconds 
(Number n) 
Duration 
Returns a Duration representing n seconds. This function takes a number and converts it into a Duration type value, expressed in seconds. 
seconds(120) returns a duration of 120 seconds.
seconds([100yd Dash Finish Time]) converts the numeric value in the 100yd Dash Finish Time field into a duration expressed in seconds. The number doesn't change, just the data type.
[Start Time] + seconds(10) returns the time of day that's 10 seconds after the time of day in the Start Time field. 
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TextList 
Split 
(Text textToSplit) 
Text 
Converts text string, in format of items list with semicolon separator, to list structure. Each item can be processed separately. Empty values and blank values are ignored. Spaces at the beginning and at the end of resulting items are removed. 
Example: Split(" item0 ;;item1; ;item2") returns ["item0", "item1", "item2"] 
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TextList 
Split 
(Text textToSplit, Text delimiter) 
Text 
Converts text string, in format of items list with custom separator character, to list structure. Each item can be processed separately. Empty values and blank values are ignored. Spaces at the beginning and at the end of resulting items are removed. 
Example: Split(" item0 ==item1= =item2", "=") returns ["item0", "item1", "item2"] 
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Numbers 
Sqrt 
(Number n) 
Number 
Returns the square root of n. 
Sqrt(9) returns 3
Sqrt(16) returns 4 
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Aggregation 
Sum 
(Number n, ...) 
Number 
Returns the sum of the nonnull arguments. 
Sum(12.50, 0.5, null, 3) returns 16 
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Aggregation 
Sum 
(Duration d, ...) 
Duration 
Returns the sum of the nonnull arguments. 
Sum(Days(1), Weeks(2), Days(2)) returns 17 days 
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Type Conversion 
ToBoolean 
(Text x) 
Boolean 
Converts the values "1", "true" or "yes" to true, other values to false. Case is ignored. 
ToBoolean("Yes") returns true
ToBoolean("0") returns false

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Type Conversion 
ToBoolean 
(Number n) 
Boolean 
Returns true if the Number n is a nonzero value, otherwise returns false. 
ToBoolean(1) returns true
ToBoolean(0) returns false
ToBoolean(null) returns false

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Type Conversion 
ToDate 
(Text x) 
Date 
Converts the text value x into a Date. x can be several of the popular date formats, including "January 30, 2000", "1/30/00", "2000/1/30", "1302000" 
ToDate("Jan 30, 2000") takes the text "Jan 30, 2000" and returns it as a date type value. 
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Type Conversion 
ToDate 
(Date/Time x) 
Date 
Date/Time type fields have a date, time and time zone associated with them, while Dates do not have time and time zone. This function converts the Date/Time x into a Date by returning the Date, in the local time zone, in which Date/Time x falls. 
ToDate([Date Modified]) returns the Date the record was last modified 
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Dates 
Today 
() 
Date 
Returns the current date in the local time zone. 
Today()  [Estimated Finish Date] calculates the duration since the Estimated Finish Date occurred. 
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Durations 
ToDays 
(Duration d) 
Number 
Takes a Duration d, and returns the number of days contained in it. 
ToDays([Start Date]  Today()) returns the number of days until the Start date.
ToDays(Weeks(2)) returns 14

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Type Conversion 
ToFormattedText 
(Date d, Text f) 
Text 
Returns a Text value which is the formatted text version of the date specified.
The Text argument to the function specifies the format. Choose one of:
MMDDYYYY
MMDDYY
DDMMYYYY
DDMMYY
YYYYMMDD 
ToFormattedText(Date(2000,01,30),"MMDDYYYY") returns "01302013"
ToFormattedText(Date(2000,01,30),"MMDDYY") returns "013013"
ToFormattedText(Date(2000,01,30),"DDMMYYYY") returns "30012013"
ToFormattedText(Date(2000,01,30),"DDMMYY") returns "300113"
ToFormattedText(Date(2000,01,30),"YYYYMMDD") returns "20130130" 
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Type Conversion 
ToFormattedText 
(Date/Time t, Text f) 
Text 
Returns a Text value which is the formatted text version of the date/time specified.
The Text argument to the function specifies the format. Choose one of:
MMDDYYYY
MMDDYY
DDMMYYYY
DDMMYY
YYYYMMDD 
ToFormattedText([Date Created],"MMDDYYYY") returns "01302013 10:34 PM"
ToFormattedText([Date Created],"MMDDYY") returns "013013 10:34 PM"
ToFormattedText([Date Created],"DDMMYYYY") returns "30012013 10:34 PM"
ToFormattedText([Date Created],"DDMMYY") returns "300113 10:34 PM"
ToFormattedText([Date Created],"YYYYMMDD") returns "20130130 10:34 PM" 
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Type Conversion 
ToFormattedText 
(Number n, Text f) 
Text 
Returns a Text value which is the formatted text version of the number specified.
The Text argument to the function specifies the format. Choose one of:
none_dot  returns the number formatted like 12345678.85
comma_dot  returns the number formatted like 12,345,678.85
comma_dot_2  returns the number formatted like 1,23,45,678.85
none_comma  returns the number formatted like 12345678,85
dot_comma  returns the number formatted like 12.345.678,85
dot_comma_2  returns the number formatted like 1.23.45.678,85 
ToFormattedText(2394729834.85, "comma_dot") returns 2,394,729,834.85 
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Type Conversion 
ToFormattedText 
(Duration d, Text f) 
Text 
Returns a Text value containing the formatted print representation of the Duration d, using the format f.
The Text argument to the function specifies the format. Choose one of:
HHMM
HHMMSS
MMSS
MM
MSECONDS
SECONDS
MINUTES
HOURS
DAYS
WEEKS
SMART 
ToFormattedText([Duration],"HHMM") returns "01:12"
ToFormattedText([Duration],"HHMMSS") returns "01:02:03"
ToFormattedText([Duration],"MMSS") returns ":02:03"
ToFormattedText([Duration],"MM") returns ":02"
ToFormattedText([Duration],"MSECONDS") returns "83750000"
ToFormattedText([Duration],"SECONDS") returns "8375"
ToFormattedText([Duration],"MINUTES") returns "25.55"
ToFormattedText([Duration],"HOURS") returns "25.35"
ToFormattedText([Duration],"DAYS") returns "1.53"
ToFormattedText([Duration],"WEEKS") returns "0.1235"
ToFormattedText([Duration],"SMART") returns "23.434 hours" 
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Durations 
ToHours 
(Duration d) 
Number 
Takes a Duration d, and returns the number of hours contained in it. 
ToHours(Days(2)) returns 48

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Durations 
ToMinutes 
(Duration d) 
Number 
Takes a Duration d, and returns the number of minutes contained in it. 
ToMinutes(Hours(2)) returns 120

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Durations 
ToMSeconds 
(Duration d) 
Number 
Takes a Duration d, and returns the number of milliseconds contained in it. 
ToMSeconds(Seconds(2)) returns 2000

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Type Conversion 
ToNumber 
(Text x) 
Number 
Returns the number represented by the Text value x. 
ToNumber("12.3") returns 12.3
ToNumber("") returns null 
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Type Conversion 
ToNumber 
(Boolean b) 
Number 
Returns 0 if b is false, 1 if b is true. 
ToNumber(false) returns 0
ToNumber(true) returns 1 
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Durations 
ToSeconds 
(Duration d) 
Number 
Takes a Duration d, and returns the number of seconds contained in it. 
ToSeconds(Minutes(2)) returns 120

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Type Conversion 
ToText 
(<any> x) 
Text 
Returns a Text value containing the print representation of the argument x. 
ToText(3.4) returns "3.4"
ToText(null) returns ""
ToText(true) returns "1"
ToText(Date(2000,12,16)) returns "12162000"
ToText(ToTimeOfDay("4pm")) returns "4:00 pm"
ToText(Hours(2)+Minutes(20)) returns "2:20"
ToText([Date Created]) returns "12152000 10:34 PM"
ToText([Record Owner]) returns the user name or email address of the user who appears in the Record Owner field.
ToText([AssignedTo]), where AssignedTo is a listuser field type, returns a semicolon separated list of the user names or email addresses of the users who appear in the AssignedTo field.

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Type Conversion 
ToTimeOfDay 
(Text x) 
TimeOfDay 
Converts the text value x into a TimeOfDay. x can be several of the popular time formats, including "3 pm", "3:04 am", "22:00", "2:03:29 am", "12:03:29.345". 
ToTimeofDay("16:32") returns the time 4:32pm 
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Type Conversion 
ToTimeOfDay 
(Date/Time t) 
TimeOfDay 
Date/Time fields display the date and time. This function returns the TimeOfDay on which the Date/Time t falls in the local time zone. 
ToTimeOfDay([Last Modified]) 
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Type Conversion 
ToTimestamp 
(Date d) 
Date/Time 
Returns a Date / Time value which is 12:00 am of the given Date d in the local time zone (midnight at the beginning of the Date). 
ToTimestamp(Date(2000,7,4)) returns midnight on July 4, 2000.

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Type Conversion 
ToTimestamp 
(Date d, TimeOfDay t) 
Date/Time 
Returns a Date / Time value which is at the given TimeOfDay t, on the given Date d in the local time zone 
ToTimestamp([Start Date], [Start Time]) 
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Special 
ToUser 
(Text t) 
User 
Converts a user name or email address to a user value. A "user" is an individual with whom you've shared your application. You'd translate something like an email address into a user value so that QuickBase recognizes the user. When you do so, you can take advantage of user fields to design permissions and/or views. For example, show a user only those tasks that have been assigned to her. 
ToUser([Email Address]) takes the values in the Email Address field and returns their corresponding user values.
ToUser("jsmith") returns the user with the user name "jsmith".
ToUser("jsmith@example.com") returns the user possessing that email address.

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Special 
ToUserList 
(User u ..) 
UserList 
Concatenates the contents of one or more user type fields into a user list field type.
This field is of type ListUser and has a limit of 20 entries. If the resulting value of this field in a record exceeds the maximum entries allowed the resulting value will be set to blank.

ToUserList([Sales Manager], [Business Manager]) takes the values in the Sales Manager field and Business Manager field and returns the combined value into another field.

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Special 
ToUserList 
(UserList ul ..) 
UserList 
Concatenates the contents of one or more user type fields into a user list field type.
This field is of type ListUser and has a limit of 20 entries. If the resulting value of this field in a record exceeds the maximum entries allowed the resulting value will be set to blank.

ToUserList([Sales Managers], [Business Managers]) takes the values in the Sales Manager field and Business Manager field and returns the combined value into another field.

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Dates 
ToWeekdayN 
(Date d) 
Date 
If the given date d is a weekday returns it, otherwise returns the next occurring weekday. 
To WeekdayN([Order Date]) returns the date in the Order Date field if it's a weekday. If not, it returns the date of the next weekday.
ToWeekdayN(ToDate("6/21/2003")) returns 6/23/2003 
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Dates 
ToWeekdayP 
(Date d) 
Date 
If the given date d is a weekday returns it, otherwise returns the previously occurring weekday. 
ToWeekdayP(ToDate("6/21/2003")) returns 6/20/2003 
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Durations 
ToWeeks 
(Duration d) 
Number 
Takes a Duration d, and returns the number of weeks contained in it. 
ToWeeks(Days(14)) returns 2

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Type Conversion 
ToWorkDate 
(Date d) 
WorkDate 
Converts a date d to a WorkDate. 
ToWorkDate([Finish]) takes a date value from the Finish field and returns it as a Workdate.
ToWorkDate(ToDate("10/31/2003")) returns a work date whose value is 10/31/2003 
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Text 
Trim 
(Text t) 
Text 
Returns t with leading and trailing white space characters removed. White space characters are space, tab, CR and LF. 
Trim(" ABC ") returns "ABC" 
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Text 
Upper 
(Text t) 
Text 
Returns t converted to upper case. 
Upper("abc") returns "ABC" 
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Text 
URLEncode 
(Text t) 
Text 
Encodes the text t so that it can be used in a URL, by substituting special character combinations for certain reserved characters, like '&' and '=' and space. 
URLEncode("abc def&ghi=4") returns "abc+def%26ghi%3D4" 
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Special 
URLRoot 
() 
Text 
Returns the first part of the URL used to access QuickBase, including the protocol and the site name. 
URLRoot() returns "https://www.quickbase.com/" 
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Special 
User 
() 
User 
Returns the user currently accessing the database.

With this function you can create a view that selects only the records modified by the user who is currently viewing the database.

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Special 
UserListToEmails 
(UserList ul) 
text 
Returns a semicolon separated list of email addresses for all the users selected on the User List field.
This function won't work for users who have hidden their email address by choosing a screen name. 
UserListToEmails([Assigned To]) returns the semicolon separated list of email addresses of the QuickBase users who are part of Assigned To field for a record. 
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Special 
UserListToNames 
(UserList ul, Text format) 
text 
Returns a semicolon separated list of users' full names. Specify text format by including "FF" to return the full names with the first name first. Or, include "LF" to return the full names with the last name first. 
UserListToNames([Volunteers], "LF"), returns "Smith, Michael; Jones, Nancy" where the Volunteers are the users Michael Smith and Nancy Jones. 
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Special 
UserListToNames 
(UserList ul) 
text 
Returns a semicolon separated list of the users' full names, first name first. 
UserListToNames([Volunteers]) returns the full names of the users listed in the Volunteers field. 
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Special 
UserRoles 
("ID/Role/Empty") 
Text 
Returns information about the current user’s role. Use in a FormulaMultiselect text field. 
UserRoles("ID") returns the role ID. UserRoles("Name”) returns the role name. UserRoles(""), or empty, returns the role ID and name in the format ID/name.
Usage examples, based on the user role, include showing or hiding form elements, validating data, sending a webhook or email notification, or dynamic instructional text.

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Special 
UserToEmail 
(User x) 
Text 
Returns the user's email address.
This function won't work for users who have hidden their email address. 
UserToEmail([Last Modified By]) returns the email address of the QuickBase user who last modified a record. 
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Special 
UserToName 
(User x, Text format) 
Text 
Returns a given user's full name. Specify text format by including "FF" to return the full name with the first name first. Or, include "LF" to return the full name with the last name first. 
UserToName([Record Owner], "LF"), returns "Smith, Michael" where the record owner is the user Michael Smith. 
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Special 
UserToName 
(User x) 
Text 
Returns the user's full name, first name first. 
UserToName([Record Owner]) returns the full name of the user listed in the Record Owner field.
Use this function to turn a user name into a full name. For example:
UserToName(ToUser("bboop")) might return "Betty Boop".

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Dates 
WeekdayAdd 
(Date d, Number n) 
Date 
Returns the date that is n weekdays past the given date d. n may be negative to move backward in time. 
WeekdayAdd([Start], [Duration]) returns the date that results if you add the value in the Duration field to the date in the Start field and count only weekdays.
WeekdayAdd(ToDate("6/20/2003"), 2) returns 6/24/2003
WeekdayAdd(ToDate("6/24/2003"), 2) returns 6/20/2003
If you have a date field named "Start Date" and that field has a value of 6/23/2003, then WeekdayAdd([Start Date], 2) returns 6/20/2003 
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WorkDates 
WeekdayAdd 
(WorkDate d, Number n) 
WorkDate 
Returns the date obtained by adding n weekdays to the date d. The calculation includes the date d as one of the n days. For example, adding 2 days to 10/31/2003 which is a Friday will give you 11/03/2003 since it counts 10/31/2003 as 1 day and 11/03/2003 (a Monday) as the second day. 
WeekdayAdd([Start],5) returns the date 5 weekdays after the date in the Start field.
WeekdayAdd(ToWorkDate(ToDate("10/31/2003")), 2) returns 11/03/2003
WeekdayAdd([Field A], [Field B]) where Field A is a field of type WorkDate and Field B is a field of type Numeric. Assuming that the value of Field A is 10/31/2003 and the value of Field B is 2, the formula will return 11/03/2003

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Dates 
WeekdaySub 
(Date d2, Date d1) 
Number 
Returns the number of weekdays in the interval starting with d1 and ending on the day before d2 (same as subtracting Dates, but the result is the number of weekdays instead of a Duration). It is the inverse of WeekdayAdd.

WeekdaySub([Finish], [Start]) returns the number of weekdays between the dates in the Start and Finish fields.
WeekdaySub(ToDate("6/24/2003"), ToDate("6/20/2003") ) returns 2

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Durations 
Weeks 
(Number n) 
Duration 
Returns a Duration representing n weeks. This function takes a number and converts it into a Duration type value, expressed in weeks. 
Weeks(2) returns a 2 week duration
Weeks([Weeks until Delivery]) converts the numeric value in the Weeks until Delivery field into a duration expressed in weeks. The number doesn't change, just the data type. 
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WorkDates 
WorkdayAdd 
(WorkDate d, Numeric n) 
WorkDate 
Returns the date obtained by adding n days to the date d. The calculation includes the date d as one of the n days. For example, adding 2 days to 10/31/2003 which is a Friday will give you 11/01/2003 since it counts 10/31/2003 as 1 day and 11/01/2003 (a Saturday) as the second day. 
WorkdayAdd([Order Date],7) returns the date seven days after the value in the Order Date field.
WorkdayAdd(ToWorkDate(ToDate("10/31/2003")), 1) returns 10/31/2003 while WorkdayAdd(ToWorkDate(ToDate("10/31/2003")), 2) returns 11/01/2003 
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Dates 
Year 
(Date d) 
Number 
Returns the year number of the Date d. 
Year([Start Date]) returns the year of the date that appears in the Start Date field.
Year(ToDate("Jan 10, 2000")) returns 2000 
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